Lead-Acid Storage Battery Theory 1959 US Navy Training Film; Chemistry of Electric Batteries

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Theory of the Lead-Acid Storage Battery: “The Navy, of course, uses lead-acid batteries… to the mammoth submarine battery. Here, one cell weighs from one-half to three quarters of a ton…” Produced for the US Navy by Fordel Films.

US Navy Training Film MN-8592

Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead–acid_battery
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

The lead-acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, its ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. These features, along with their low cost, makes it attractive for use in motor vehicles to provide the high current required by automobile starter motors.

As they are inexpensive compared to newer technologies, lead-acid batteries are widely used even when surge current is not important and other designs could provide higher energy densities. Large-format lead-acid designs are widely used for storage in backup power supplies in cell phone towers, high-availability settings like hospitals, and stand-alone power systems. For these roles, modified versions of the standard cell may be used to improve storage times and reduce maintenance requirements. Gel-cells and absorbed glass-mat batteries are common in these roles, collectively known as VRLA (valve-regulated lead-acid) batteries.

In 1999 lead–acid battery sales accounted for 40–45% of the value from batteries sold worldwide excluding China and Russia, and a manufacturing market value of about $15 billion…

History

The French scientist Gautherot observed in 1801 that wires that had been used for electrolysis experiments would themselves provide a small amount of “secondary” current after the main battery had been disconnected. In 1859, Gaston Planté’s lead–acid battery was the first battery that could be recharged by passing a reverse current through it. Planté’s first model consisted of two lead sheets separated by rubber strips and rolled into a spiral. His batteries were first used to power the lights in train carriages while stopped at a station. In 1881, Camille Alphonse Faure invented an improved version that consisted of a lead grid lattice, into which a lead oxide paste was pressed, forming a plate. This design was easier to mass-produce. An early manufacturer (from 1886) of lead–acid batteries was Henri Tudor.

Using a gel electrolyte instead of a liquid allows the battery to be used in different positions without leakage. Gel electrolyte batteries for any position date from 1930s…

Applications

Most of the world’s lead-acid batteries are automobile starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) batteries, with an estimated 320 million units shipped in 1999.[8] In 1992 about 3 million tons of lead were used in the manufacture of batteries.

Wet cell stand-by (stationary) batteries designed for deep discharge are commonly used in large backup power supplies for telephone and computer centres, grid energy storage, and off-grid household electric power systems. Lead–acid batteries are used in emergency lighting and to power sump pumps in case of power failure.

Traction (propulsion) batteries are used in golf carts and other battery electric vehicles. Large lead-acid batteries are also used to power the electric motors in diesel-electric (conventional) submarines when submerged, and are used as emergency power on nuclear submarines as well. Valve-regulated lead acid batteries cannot spill their electrolyte. They are used in back-up power supplies for alarm and smaller computer systems (particularly in uninterruptible power supplies; UPS) and for electric scooters, electric wheelchairs, electrified bicycles, marine applications, battery electric vehicles or micro hybrid vehicles, and motorcycles.

Lead-acid batteries were used to supply the filament (heater) voltage, with 2 V common in early vacuum tube (valve) radio receivers.

Portable batteries for miners’ cap lamps headlamps typically have two or three cells…